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Referencing & Avoiding Plagiarism


Reference Management


If you have questions about reference formats, please contact us with your query using the Query form on the guide, or email  us at You should also consult your lecturer and refer to your departmental handbook MU Harvard Style Guide.

Book Journal Article Newspaper Conference Paper Thesis/Dissertation
Official Report Website Online Image Online Video Social Media Post
Film/Documentary Podcast  



Surname(s), Initial(s). (Year of publication) Title of Book: subtitle (if any). Series (if any), Volume number (if any), Edition (only if not the first edition). Place of publication: Publisher.

Conference Paper

Surname(s), Initials(s). (Year of publication) Title of conference paper. In: Editor, Chair or name of organisation, Full title of conference. Location, Date. Place of location: Publisher.


Authorship or Source (Year created or last updated) Title of web document or web page [medium]. Available at: URL (accessed date).

Social Media Post

Surname(s), Initial(s). (Year) Title of page [Name of platform] Day/month post written. Available at: URL address (accessed date).

Journal Article

Surname(s), Initial(s). (Year of publication) Title of Article. Full Title of Journal, Volume number (issue/part number), page numbers.



Surname, Initial(s). (Year) Full Title of Thesis. Unpublished Level, Place of University (if not included in the name of university): Name of University.

Online Image

Surname(s), Initial(s). (Year of publication) Title of image [online type of image]. Available at: URL (accessed date).


Title. (Year of release) [medium]. Director. Country of origin: Film studio.

Note: Director’s name is not written surname first.


Surname(s), Initial(s). (Year of publication) Title of article. Title of Newspaper, date, page number. 

Note: “The” is omitted in newspaper titles if it is at the beginning of the title.

Official Report

Name of Institution/Department (Year) Title of report. Place of publication: Publisher. 

Online Video

Screen name of contributor. (Year) Title, Series title if available [video online]. Available at: URL address (accessed date).

Example: David Harvey. (2008) Spaces of global capitalism: towards an era of uneven geographical thought [video online]. Available at: (accessed 24 August 2010).


Broadcaster (Year) Programme title, Series Title [podcast]. Date of transmission. Available at: Programme URL (accessed date).