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Referencing & Avoiding Plagiarism

Which Referencing Style?

Reference Management

Faculty of Arts

Ancient Classics - Consult handbook

Celtic Studies - Harvard

English - Consult handbook

History - Irish Historical Studies 

Media Studies - Harvard

Music - MHRA Style

Philosophy - MHRA Style

Early Irish - Consult handbook

Chinese - Students have the option of choosing between the Chicago or Harvard Style.

German - Consult handbook

French - Harvard for undergraduate work. For postgraduates and final year thesis students, please consult the relevant Departmental Handbook.

Spanish - Harvard recommended. You may select your own style,however, be consistent.

Faculty of Social Sciences

Adult & Community Education - Harvard

Anthropology - Chicago Style. Consult Chapter 15 of the Chicago Manual of Style & here

Applied Social Studies - Consult Handbook

Business - Harvard or APA 6th

Design Innovation - Consult Handbook

Early and Childhood Education - Consult Handbook

Economics - Consult Handbook

Education - Consult Handbook

Geography - Harvard recommended. But consult course handbook.

International Development - Harvard

Law - OSCOLA (Criminology uses Harvard)

Politics - ASA

Sociology - ASA

Theology - Turabian 


Faculty of Science & Engineering

Biology - Harvard

Chemistry - Examples are provided in course handbook

Computer Science - Consult handbook

Electronic Engineering - Consult handbook

Experimental Physics - Consult handbook

Mathematics & Statistics - Contact your supervisor

Psychology - APA

Theoretical Physics - IEEE Style

Referencing Styles

  • There is no standard style used at Maynooth University. The ultimate rule is that you check your course / module handbook for advice on referencing and follow those instructions.
  • You may have to use different styles depending on your module choices.
  • Examples of references in the main styles are available here.
  • Referencing can be done manually or using reference management software where you can select which style to use. Whichever you use make sure it matches the version in the course handbook.
  • Check your Subject on this page to find out the recommended style to use.

Artificial Intelligence Referencing Guidelines

Chicago Manual of Style Online

MU Referencing Style Guides in PDF Form

Harvard Tips & Cheats