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Referencing & Avoiding Plagiarism


Reference Management

APA Referencing Style

If you have questions about reference formats, please contact us with your query using the Query form on the guide, or email  us at You should also consult your lecturer and refer to your departmental handbook APA 6th Style Guide.

Book Journal Article Newspaper Conference Paper Thesis/Dissertation
Official Report Website Online Image Online Video Social Media Post
Film/Documentary Podcast  



Surname(s), Initial(s). (Year). Title of work. Location: Publisher.

Conference Paper

Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of the contribution. Title of the conference/meeting (page numbers). Location: Publisher.



Surname, Initial(s). (Date of publication Year, Month, Day; n.d. if not available). Title of article. Title of website. Retrieved from URL

Social Media Post

Author Screen Name. (Year, Month Day). Full post or truncated version if too long. [Name of Social Media Platform]. Retrieved from URL

Journal Article

Surname, Initial(s)., & Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume number(Issue number), Pages.

Note: If retrieving a journal from an online, include the URL or a DOI after the page numbers.


Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of the work. (Type of work). Institution, Location.

Example: Meehan, D. (2007). An exploration of the relationship between poet and the community based on the work of three contemporary Irish poets. (Unpublished master’s thesis). DCU, Dublin.

Online Image

Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of the image [image] (Year, Month Day). Retrieved Month Day, Year, from URL


Producer Surname, initial(s). (Producer), & Director Surname, initial(s). (Director). (Year). Title of film. Country of origin: Studio.


Surname, Initial(s). (Year, Month Day). Article title. Newspaper title. page number(s).


Official Report

Surname, Initial(s). or name of Corporate author (Year). Title of report (Report No.). Place of Publication: Publisher.

Online Video

Surname, Initial(s) [or Screen name] (Year, Month Day of publication). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from URL 


Surname, Initial(s). (Year, Month Day of recording). Title of the contribution [Audio podcast]. Part of Title of the series / Conference. Retrieved from URL