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Referencing & Avoiding Plagiarism


Reference Management

OSCOLA Referencing Style

If you have questions about reference formats, please contact us with your query using the Query form on the guide, or email  us at You should also consult your lecturer and refer to your departmental handbook OSCOLA Referencing Guide.

Book Journal Article Newspaper Conference Paper Thesis/Dissertation
Website Online Image Online Video Social Media Post Film/Documentary
Case EU Legislation Bills    



Author, Title of book (Edition, Publisher Year)

Conference Paper

Author, 'Title of paper' (Name of Conference, Location, Date)

Online Image

Author/Creator, 'Title of image' (Name of website, Date published) <URL> Access date


Director, Title of film/documentary (Location, Studio Year)



EU Legislation

Legislation Title [Year] OJ Issue/first page

Example: Protocol to the Agreement on the Member States that do not fully apply the Schengen acquis—Joint Declarations [2007] OJ L129/35

Journal Article

Author, 'Title of article' (Year) Volume(Issue) Name of journal First page number of article

Example: Edwin S. Mills, 'An aggregative model of resource allocation in a metropolitan area'. (1967) 57(2) American Economic Review 197


Author, 'Title of thesis' (Thesis type, Name of institution Year)

Online Video

Author/Creator, 'Title of video' (Name of Website, Date published) <URL> Access date


Title of bill (and subtitle if applicable) House of origin (Year) Assigned number


Author, 'Title of article' Name of Newspaper (Location, Date)


Author/Creator, 'Title of page' (Name of website, Publication day month year) <URL> Access date

Social Media Post

Author/Creator [@username if applicable], 'Title or first line of post' (Name of platform, Date published) <URL> Access date


Case name [Year] Court Number, [Year] Volume Report abbreviation First page of report