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Referencing & Avoiding Plagiarism


Reference Management

IEEE Referencing Style

If you have questions about reference formats, please contact us with your query using the Query form on the guide, or email  us at You should also consult your lecturer and refer to your departmental handbook IEEE Handbook.

Book Journal Article Newspaper Conference Paper Thesis/Dissertation
Official Report Website Online Image Online Video Social Media Post
Film/Documentary Podcast Software  



Author Initial(s), Surname. Title of book. Location published: Publisher, Year.

Conference Paper

Author(s) Initial(s) Surname, "Title of Paper" in Name of conference, Year, Page numbers.


Author Initial(s) Surname or Name of Institution, "Name of Webpage", Name of website, paragraph no. (if applicable), Month, day, year published. [Online]. Available: URL [Access date].

Social Media Post

Author/Creator, "Title of post", Name of platform, Month, day, year published. [Online]. Available: URL [Access date].


Name of Department/Institute, Title of Software [Format]. Location: Publisher, Year.

Journal Article

Author(s) Initial(s) Surname, "Title of article", Title of journal, volume number, issue number, page numbers, year of publication.


Author Initial(s) Surname, "Title", Type of work, Name of institution, Location, Year.

Online Image

Author Initial(s) Surname/Creator. "Title/Description of Image" Name of website, Month Day, Year [Online Image]. Available: URL [Accessed date].


Director Initial(s) Surname. Name of Film/Documentary [Film]. Location: Studio. Year.


Author Initial(s) Surname, "Title of article", Name of newspaper, Day and month published, Page number(s), Year.

Official Report

Author(s) Initial(s) Surname, "Title of report", Name of Institution, City, Country, Report number, Date published.

Online Video

Video Owner/Creator. Title of Video. Month, day, year published. [Online Video]. Available: URL [Access date].


Owner/Creator. "Title of Episode". Title of Series. Month, day, year published. [Podcast]. Available: URL [Access date].