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Referencing & Avoiding Plagiarism


Reference Management

MHRA Referencing Style

If you have questions about reference formats, please contact us with your query using the Query form on the guide, or email  us at You should also consult your lecturer and refer to your departmental handbook MHRA Referencing Guide.

Book Journal Article Newspaper Conference Paper Thesis/Dissertation
Official Report Website Online Image Online Video Social Media Post
Film/Documentary Podcast Audio  



Author, Title of book, Edition (Location: Publisher, year), Page number(s). 

Conference Paper

Author, 'Title of paper', Name of conference, (Year), Page numbers.


Author/Creator, 'Title of page', Name of website (Date published) <URL> [Access date].

Social Media Post

'Caption or post' (@username, Date published).

Note: If an author's identity is clear from their username or handle (like above), then there is no need to include their full name. If their full name is necessary, insert it before (@username).


Author/Composer, Name of piece, Name of artist/conductor/orchestra (Recording company, CD reference, Date published).

Journal Article

Author, 'Title of article', Name of journal, Series number (Year), Page numbers (Cited page number).


Author, 'Title of work' (Degree level, Name of institution, Year), page number. 

Online Image

Author/Creator, 'Title of image', Name of website (Date published) <URL> [Access date].


Title of film/documentary, dir. by Director's name (Studio, Year).


Author, 'Title of article', Name of paper, Date published, page number(s).

Official Report

Author, Title of Report, Report number (Location: Publisher, Year), Page number(s).

Online Video

Author/Creator, Title of video, Type of source, Name of website, Date published, <URL> [Access date].



Host/Creator, 'Title of episode', Name of series, Type of source (Date published) <URL> [Access date].