We are referring to an abstract here as a summary of the contents of a book, article, or speech (dictionary).
The purpose of an abstract is to describe the work/article/book without great detail. It should explain the work as briefly and clearly as possible.
A table of contents, is a list, before the start of a written work, of its chapter or section titles or brief descriptions with their commencing page numbers.
What this table tells us is:
While References allow us to distinguish original ideas from finding drawn upon, it allows the reader to also follow up in more the ideas mentioned in the work.
Referencing acknowledges the books, articles, websites, and any other material used in the writing of a paper, essay or thesis.
Further information is available in our reference guide.
UNESCO have published the guide below on Fake News and recognising disinformation.
There are some hints that tell you that what you're reading is a high quality academic resource.
Checklist for identifying an academic piece
Use the CRAAP test: stands for Currency, Relevance, Authority, Accuracy, and Purpose.
LIST Tutorial – Sourcing and Evaluating Information
In this age of information how can we tell fact from fiction. While CRAAP may be able to eliminate irrelevant information in the traditional formats. It does not always fair well in terms of modern formats.
In the age of FAKE news – SMELL can help you vet the quality of information
S stands for Source. Who is providing the information?
M is for Motivation. Why are they telling me this?
E represents Evidence. What evidence is provided for generalizations?
L is for Logic. Do the facts logically compel the conclusions?
L is for Left out. What’s missing that might change our interpretation of the information?