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Referencing & Avoiding Plagiarism


Reference Management

IHS Referencing Style

If you have questions about reference formats, please contact us with your query using the Query form on the guide, or email  us at You should also consult your lecturer and refer to your departmental handbook Irish Historical Studies Handbook.

Book Journal Article Newspaper Conference Paper Thesis/Dissertation
Manuscript Website Online Image Online Video Social Media Post
Film/Documentary Podcast  



Author, Name of book (Place of publication, Year), page number(s).

Conference Paper

Author, 'Title of paper' in Name of Conference (Location, Year), Page number(s).


Author/Creator, 'Title of webpage', Date published (URL) (Date accessed).

Social Media Post

Author/Creator, 'Title or caption' on Name of platform, Date published (URL) (Date).

Journal Article

Author, 'Title of article' in Name of journal, Volume in roman numerals, Issue no. in arabic numerals (Year), Page number(s).


Author, 'Title of work' (Type of thesis, Name of Institution, Year), Page number(s).

Online Image

Author/Creator, 'Title of image', Date published (URL) (Date accessed).


Director/Creator, Title of film/documentary (Media format, Place: Studio/Publisher, Year).


Name of newspaper, Date published.


Title or description, Date (Repository or archive, Collection to which is belongs, Volume number, Page or folio number(s)).

Online Video

Author/Creator, 'Title of video', Date published (URL) (Date accessed).


Broadcaster/Creator, 'Title of podcast' in Title of series, Date published (URL) (Date accessed).